FOOD TERMS – continued
pH scale = literally means “the power of hydrogen.” An exponential scale used to measure acidity & alkalinity. pH is the hydrogen (H) ion concentration in a solution— p stands for the power of hydrogen ionization (7= neutral; below 7.0 is acid; and above 7.0 is alkaline).
PRESERVATIVES = products to prevent microbiological spoilage of the food. See examples below:
— Breads = sodium & calcium propionates, sodium diacetate, acetic acid, citric acid, sorbic acid, Na erythorbate.
— Dry cereals, potato flakes, enriched rice = BHT.
— Cheeses, syrups, and pie fillings = sorbic acid, sodium salts, potassium salts, natamyacin, nisin.
— Margarine = benzoic acid, sodium chloride.
— Lard, shortenings, crackers, soup bases, salad dressings and potato chips = BHA, BHT.
— Citrus fruits = fungicides prevent mold & fungus.
— Dairy Products = Na, Ca, K salts of citric, tartaric, and pyrophosphoric acids.
— Processed red meats = Na & K nitrates, Na & K nitrites, Na erythorbate.
— Processed poultry and turkey = Phosphate blends, Na diacetate.
— Sugarcane & beet sugar mills = use “quats” (quaternary ammonium compounds).
— Multipurpose= propyl gallate, salt, sugar, vinegar, and sulfur dioxide gas( inhibit discoloration in fruit juices).