FOOD TERMS – continued
- THE MAILLARD REACTION: in baking it describes the browning process when an amino acid chemically reacts with a reducing sugar like lactose in the presence of heat to create a surface browning of the final end product.
- NEUTRALIZING AGENT = to adjust pH of an acid (below) system or alkaline (above) system to pH of 7.0.
- ORGANIC = literally means food compounds that contain carbon. In the Food Industry it has a duel meaning for foods that are grown without the use of artificial fertilizers or pesticides; animals raised without genetically modified feed; no antibiotics or hormone injections used to promote growth.
- OSMOSIS = Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a cell wall, membrane or any semi-permeable barrier from a solution of low ion concentration up a solute concentration gradient) to a high ion concentration. A solvent moves in this physical process without input of energy, across a semi-permeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations. Net movement of solvent is from the less-concentrated (hypotonic solution) to the more-concentrated (hypertonic) solution, which reduces the difference in concentrations.