FOOD TERMS – continued
- FATS = lipid structures. Any of numerous energy rich esters found in plants and animals that are oily and greasy, are soluble in organic solvents like ether, but not soluble in water.
Note: Saturated fats = contain only single-bond carbon linkages, are the least chemically active, and are usually solid at room temperature (animal fats, acetic, butyric, caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic).
Note: Unsaturated fats = contain one or more double bond carbon linkages and are liquid at ambient temperature (fish oil, caproleic, lauroleic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, petroselenic, vaccenic, linolenic, elaesosearic, gadoleic, arachidonic, and eurcic.
- FERMENTATION = the microbial (yeast) addition to a substance (usually water/liquid in the mfg. of beer, wine, or cheese) which decomposes or converts the organic materials into a new compound.
- FIBER = composed of indigestible carbohydrates (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, & gums). Fiber is used to reduce calorie content, to thicken foods, and to stabilize systems. Fiber can be soluble or unsoluble in H2O.
- FIRMING AGENT = see TEXTURIZER / FIRMING AGENT. Firming agents and texturizers are additives that create consistant visual (sight) or consistant tactile (touch) surface characteristics of a food ingredient or product.
- FORTIFICATION = adding additional nutrients to the product to make the nutrient level higher than when processing began.