Consumer Bread Mfg – “Gluten” Protein 1
Bread / Grain Manufacturing: “Gluten” Protein
“Gluten” protein is formed from Gliadin and Glutenin as these two proteins combine when mixing grains like barley, malts, rye, triticale, khorasan wheat (2x larger) and spelt wheat (Medieval) flours with water. The flour and water combination results in final form as gluten, which adds structure to the bread . Gluten protein gives bread the unique structure and physical properties it has in the way it is mixed, kneaded and baked.
Gluten is found in flour and grain products like bread, cake, pasta, cookies, muffins and other applications like coatings for French fried potatoes, malted rice cereal and soy sauce. An important point of clarification: many people refer to the protein in any grain as “gluten”, but this is technically not true. Those Gluten free grains like corn, oats, sorghum do contain proteins but they do not contain “gluten” proteins unless they are cross-contaminated from another crop.
One of the largest cash crops is corn, which is naturally gluten-free and available as a very cost effective substitute for these other gluten containing grain flours. In addition to corn, some other examples of grains which do not contain gluten are millet, rice, sorghum or buckwheat (a more complete list in the section: Consumer Bread & Grains: Seed Terms & Gluten Free). These grain options present new opportunities in product development for companies manufacturing baked goods. DSM’s Global Insight Series states “The gluten-free market overall is expected to grow over 10% of food and drink through 2018”; and “the gluten-free products market is expected to reach $6.8 Billion by 2019”.
Some people have food allergies, those allergic to gluten have Celiac disease and would ask for the gluten protein to be removed from the bread. Celiac disease prevents the small intestine’s ability to absorb food nutrients causing nutritional deficiencies in calcium, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, Vitamins A , B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C, D, E and Vitamin K (see Vitamin section in “The Food Ingredient Digest”). This leads to chronic illness like weight loss, abdominal cramping, anemia, tooth enamel defects, constipation, diarrhea, energy loss and fatigue, mouth cracks, skin sores and infertility. Celiac disease currently affects one out of 133 adults and chidren according to the Celiac Sprue Association (CSA out of Omaha, NE), but most of these people go undiagnosed in today’s medical system.